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Factors To Consider When Choosing Concrete Contractors

Choosing the best concrete contractors for your project can be a daunting task since you need a professional who will deliver high-quality services. When you select the best contractors for the job, you are guaranteed of proper services that match your expectations. Many companies offer concrete services, and choosing the best can be challenging. Before you choose a team of concrete contractors, there are key things you need to consider for you to hire the best person for the job. One of the things to do is search for concrete companies near you. Browsing on the internet will help you learn about various companies located near you that can offer the range of services that you need. Ask for recommendations from your neighbors and colleagues to learn about concrete contractors that they had hired before who provided quality services. It is important to compare the services provided by different companies before choosing one for you to select the best. The most important aspect to consider is the range of services that the company specializes in. You need to hire concrete contractors that can do what you are looking for. Some concrete contractors specialize in one area of concrete. It is essential to choose professionals that can do the work that you are looking for. Ensure you choose a company that consists of a team of experts that have performed specific work with concrete multiple time before. Look for a company that successfully complete several projects similar to the one that you have. This ensures that the company is well experienced to deliver as per the expectations of clients.

Consider the experience level of the concrete contractors before hiring them to do the job. The company that has been in operation for long can deliver high-quality services since they have learned from doing the job. Concrete contractors who have been in business for long have learned from the different projects they have worked on, and they will avoid making costly mistakes. Experienced contractors are more reliable and knowledgeable when it comes to concrete works, and this guarantees quality results. Hire concrete contractors who have proper insurance and license. The contractors should be licensed to offer concrete services with proper documentation to prove that they are authorized to offer concrete services. Make sure you hire certified contractors who have proper licensing since this is a prove that they have met the set standards of concrete contractors, and they have the expertise required to do the job.

You need to hire concrete contractors who are insured. The contractors should have insurance coverage. The insurance will cater for any work-related injuries the contractors may experience while doing their job. The concrete contractors should have an insurance cover to protect your property. Find out the cost of doing the concrete project that you have. You need to ask for written quotations from several companies before choosing one. A credible company should give you a written estimate that indicates the cost of the project, the duration of the project, and the materials they need for the project. Compare the quotes you get from several companies for you to choose the best concrete installation company.

The Beginner’s Guide to

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The Beginners Guide To (From Step 1)

Bullying: Prevention and Taking Action

There is a worrying trend of students with disabilities being attacked in school by classmates. Bullying, by itself, is a vice that needs to be stopped. It gets worse when the person being attacked is in such a position. Statistics go further to show that those with disabilities are twice as likely to be bullied. It is, therefore, important to learn more about this trend and to do something as a parent to safeguard your children.

Bullying is that constant treatment with acts of aggression against a person not able to defend themselves against such attacks at that moment. Bullies aim to harm their victims physically, mentally, and socially. Bullying is not always overt and physical, as there are subtle forms of bullying that are hard to point out. We now have a new problem in the form of cyberbullying, due to the adoption of smartphones and other communication devices in all areas of our lives. A special needs child will, therefore, suffer more significant damage from bullying.

While students with disabilities are more likely to be bullied, those with autism and orthopaedic conditions are more susceptible to that bullying. There will also be repeated cases of bullying in the future. Bullying has some lasting effects on the victims. There will be anxiety, depression and physical health issues. If you pay close attention, you will find your child has injuries that are not easy to explain, constant loss of their items like books, electronics, jewellery, changes in their eating habits like binge eating or skipping meals, trouble sleeping and nightmares, sunning school with various excuses, and self-destructive behaviour like self-inflicted harm and harbouring suicidal thoughts.

Each student has rights, whether with disabilities or otherwise. Those rights have to be respected, no matter your station in the education system. A good place to start in upholding those rights is to teach students, especially those with disabilities, how to express themselves better. Most schools focus on academic learning and less on social and emotional learning. The expectation that students will learn how to express themselves in social situations naturally does not work. Bullies thus find a perfect environment to carry out their plans.

There is also a need to sensitize the students on the harm caused by bullying. When everyone regards bullying as unacceptable behavior, and to have a proper system in place for reporting incidents of bullying, there will be a safer environment for all students.

There is also a need to act appropriately when you notice your child has been bullied. You need first to be supportive and let them know it is not their fault. You also need keenly to observe them for all the signs of bullying. Make a point of contacting their teacher immediately you spot those signs. If it is a severe case, you need to contact the principal directly.

It is a good idea to involve a student rights lawyer in such a case. When you feel all your attempts to get to the bottom of this case at school, or it keeps on persisting, you need to get the right legal help. The lawyer has experience in such matters and therefore knows how to approach it to get the right results. You can visit this site for more info.

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Universal Banking – Answer For The Best Banking Design?

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In recent years, universal banking has been growing its popularity in Indonesia. Mandiri Bank, for example, has taken strategy to become Indonesia’s universal bank; this bank has also initiated to develop an integrated financial risk system in terms of sounding financial performance and increasing shareholder value. In Germany, and most developed countries in Europe, universal banks have initiated its operations since nineteen century. There is mounting evidence that in those countries, universal banks have taken an important part in the development of real sectors and the financial system. In those countries, the growing numbers of universal banking practices are really supported by the regulation of central of bank.

Despite, in The United States, they are strict to regulate universal banks by blocking commercial banks from engaging in securities and stock markets practices. They argued that the practice of universal banking might be harmful for the financial system. ((Boyd et.al, 1998) cited in Cheang, 2004) The “risk” might be the key reason why the central bank of The U.S is worried about the universal banking system. Since, if the central of bank allowed banks to adjust their operation to be universal banks, the relationship among, banks, financial and stock markets would be closer. Consequently, this would give an uncertainty to the banks condition and performance. For example, if there were a disaster in stock market, banks would get problems in their financial positions. Thus, they would tend to be insolvent.

In addition universal banks would also threaten the market share of other specialized institutions, because more customers would choose universal banks that offer more option to their investment. Hence, more specialized institutions are likely to be ruined in the U.S financial industry.

One majoring factor, which is triggering a bank to be universal bank, is to increase the profit by enlarging their market share. According to João A. C. Santos (1998) universal bank itself can be defined as the financial institution, which enlarges its service range in terms of offering a variety of financial products and services in one site. Thus, by operating universal banking, banks could get a greater opportunity to expand to another financial area, such as : financial securities, insurance, hedge funds and etc.

Although the trend of banks has recently tended to universal banks, it is undoubtedly true that universal banks would also face further risks because a wide range of financial services is strongly associated with increasing risks and escalating monitoring costs. These are the major concerns why banks have to implement more advance technology in terms of financial risk management. Moreover, the practices of universal banks would cause significant risks to economy’s payment system. Since, the operation of universal banks connects closely to the financial and stock markets that are very fluctuate in a short term.

To win in the tight competition among financial institutions, banks have to alter their maneuver to lead in the market. Universal bank could be the wise choice for the bank manager, because they can attract more customers with a wide range of services. Furthermore, by altering their operation to the universal banking system, banks would get benefits from the efficiency and economies of scale.

In order to understand about the universal banking practices, this paper would examine the exclusive matters, which related to the risks and benefits in a universal bank. Moreover, this paper would also focus the whole impact of this institution to the financial system and the economy as a whole.

1.2 PROFITS AND COSTS IN UNIVERSAL BANKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL BANKS

General problem related to financial intermediation, include universal banks and another type of banks, is about asymmetric information . It is the main problem that causes costs to increase and influence the performance of financial institutions. In Universal banks, the problems that would increase are slightly different with specialized banks; they are similar in that they should cope the risks problem associated with their financial position. Although, in universal banks, the risks are more bigger due to the wide range of financial instruments that they organized. Therefore, banks have to increase their spending on monitoring costs that are more complicated than specialized institutions or conventional banks.

Possible answer why more banks sacrifice to the escalating risks and transform it operation into the universal banking is that they want to compete and expand their market share, in order to seek a greater opportunity profits by serving more choices to their customers. Many banks has experienced a great performance after they alter their operation, the main concerns are that they could reach better economies of scale which can reduce the amount of spending in operational costs and also a greater opportunity to get more profits. The research finding which was conducted by Vender, R. (2002, cited in Cheang, 2004) about the efficiency of revenue in financial conglomerates and the level of both profit and cost in universal banking, has proved that both financial conglomerates and universal banking contain good performance in several indicators of bank profitability. His finding also suggests that the sustained expansion of financial conglomerates and universal banking practices may increase efficiency in the financial system.

This opinion is strengthen by another experts, like : George Rich and Christian Walter (1993). They state that universal banks which posse benefits over specialized institutions, are able to take advantage of reduction in the average cost of production and scope in banking. It is essential for banks that operate on a international level and in order to fulfill customer needs with a variety of financial services. They also mention a classic example how universal banks in some countries, such as : Switzerland, Germany and more European countries has experienced benefits by operating universal banking. In addition, they also state that the fear if universal bank would threaten specialized institutions has not proven. In Switzerland and Germany, for example, specialized institutions could achieve a better improvement in terms of cooperating with big banks. Universal banks are one of potential market channel which can sell their products directly to the customers, so specialized institutions also get additional return due to the increases in the number of universal banks. Therefore, this proves that universal banks do not threat other institutions; in fact, they support specialized institutions to market their products.

According to Fohlin, universal banking would lead to a bank’s concentration due to the increases the number of branch. Based on Germany’s experience, such branching-based expansion has led to the efficiency in banking because it could increase economies of scale in advertising and marketing, and open an enormous opportunity to enhance diversification and steadiness for banks.

A universal bank has unique position to tackle asymmetric information. As stated by Joao A. C. Santos (1998), that a universal bank has potential benefits on the reduction of agency cost and acquires profits due to information advantages. Although in other sides, universal banking also face problems related to the cost, conflict of interest and safety and soundness. But the default risk, which is generally happened in financial intermediation, would decrease substantially because universal banks are easier to control over their customers. Most of lenders in universal banks are their customers, so they can understand about the capacity of the customers from the information that they gather.

Nicholas Cheang (2004) also points out how universal banks could reduce a crucial problem in financial institution, asymmetric information. He argued that they could preserve a close relationship with their borrowers, by gathering more relevant information to make an important decision for investment. Their advantageous positions also vital to optimize the distribution of fund allocation, because banks have already known which investment that would give more margins to them. So, they don’t need to worry too much about the risk.

1.3 UNIVERSAL BANKS AND THE STABILITY IN THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM

Financial institution plays a vital role in terms of mobilizing funds in the economy. Consequently, stability in financial system is really important to manage by government in order to prevent wider implications to the real sectors. Financial disasters which happened in most countries in Asia in 1997 are the classic examples how importance to save banks to recover the economy.

As the financial supermarkets, which are handling a variety of financial instruments, they must face a greater risk than specialized institutions. As a consequence, this institution needs to be monitored closely in order to prevent more implications to the economy. According to Benston (1994), the escalating risks in universal banking would lead to a great problem because it can cause generous distress in the financial system. Hence, it will greatly increase the risk to the economy’s payment system. In another term, Rime and Strioh (2001) who examine the financial system in Switzerland in which universal banking are becoming more important in this country, state that difficulty in monitoring large universal banks is a major concern. This is the reason why universal bank has to spend more money in monitoring cost and develop an advanced system in information technology. In other words, it could say that the consequence of inefficient monitoring could lead to financial instability. (Cheang, 2004)

A wider range of universal banks in financial system makes the fund channels of banks to the customer are larger than specialized institutions. So, the economy will improve because universal banks will support more funding. This can be seen by the fact that a universal bank practice in Germany has triggered the progress of some enterprises performance in this country. (Stiglitz, 1985). It is understandable that when the allocation of fund can distribute widely and effectively to the potential enterprises, the economy will improve. In this context, universal banks have played as the key institution which mobilize fund to the potential lender.

Edwards (1996), has also proved that a universal bank is not just significantly contributed to economy from the external funds that they provide, but also from the improvement of the information flows. (cited in Cheang, 2004) Therefore, this proves that universal banks have played a significant role in terms of reducing the default risk by providing important information about the lender or customers. Furthermore, the safety of the financial system would be improved by the existence of universal banks.

1.4 CONCLUSION

The development of universal banks has to in line with the policy direction of central bank, because it is important to keep the stability of financial system and the economy as whole. There are three important areas that must be concerned related to universal bank operations, such as : the strengthened of capital and advanced risk management system. Consequently, in order to manage universal bank, people need to be aware about the unique of the risk type in universal banking. Furthermore, policy maker must also consider about the implication of universal banks in financial system.

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